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Espresso is a concentrated beverage brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans . Espresso often has a thicker consistency than coffee brewed by other methods, a higher concentration of suspended and dissolved solids, and crema (foam ). As a result of the pressurized brewing process the flavours and chemicals in a typical cup of coffee are very concentrated. Espresso is the base for other drinks, such as a latte , cappuccino , macchiato , mocha , or americano . Espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most beverages, but the usual serving size is smaller—a 30 mL (1 US fluid ounce ) shot of espresso has 40 to 75 mg of caffeine, which is about half the caffeine of a standard 240 mL (8 US fluid ounces ) cup of drip-brewed coffee. A professional operator of an espresso machine is a barista , the Italian word for bartender .
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