Kingston upon Hull, almost invariably referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is located 25 miles (40 km) from the North Sea on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary. Hull has a resident population of 257,000 (2007 est.). Renamed Kings town upon Hull by King Edward I in 1299, the town and city of Hull has served as market town, military supply port, trading hub, fishing and whaling centre, and industrial metropolis. Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars. Through its celebrated 18th century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, the city was the backdrop to events leading to the abolition of the slave trade in Britain.---------------- The city was unique in the United Kingdom in having a municipally owned telephone system from 1902, sporting cream, not red, telephone boxes. After suffering heavy damage during the Second World War, Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, during which the city gained unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation, education and policing. However, the city has embarked on an extensive programme of economic regeneration and renewal.------------- Culturally, Hull has been the base for several notable poets including Philip Larkin, many of whose poems were set in the city. A range of both classical and popular musical experiences is available, and the various museums offer a glimpse of the scope of Hulls history and development. These, along with a lively night life and popular arts festivals, attract visitors from a wide area. Spectator sporting activities include professional football and two rugby league clubs. There are many amateur sports clubs located in the city offering a wide range of participatory opportunities. The University of Hull and the Hull York Medical School are situated in the city. In keeping with the maritime history of Hull, the long established Hull Trinity House School offers training to mariners. The local accent differs markedly in its vowel sounds from that in the rest of the Yorkshire region and the rhythm of speech bears a similarity to that of Lincolnshire to which it was linked in the defunct county of Humberside.