Indiana (i /ɪndiˈænə/) is a U.S. state, the 19th admitted to the Union. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region, and with approximately 6.3 million residents, is ranked 16th in population and 17th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area, and is the smallest state in the continental US west of the Appalachian Mountains. Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis, the largest of any state capital east of the Mississippi River.
Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 as well as a number of smaller industrial cities and small towns. It is home to several major sports teams and athletic events including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts, the NBA's Indiana Pacers, the Indianapolis 500 motorsports race (which is the largest single-day sporting event in the world). Residents of Indiana are known as Hoosiers, but the origin of the term is unknown. Many explanations are given, including the humorous ones of James Whitcomb Riley stating that Indiana pioneers would yell out "Who's there?" in the wilderness or "Whose ear?" after a brawl. The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land". This name dates back to at least the 1760s and was first used by Congress when the Indiana Territory was incorporated in 1800, before which it had been part of the Northwest Territory.
Prior to this, Indiana had been inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic American Indians for thousands of years. Angel Mounds State Historic Site, one of the best preserved ancient earthwork mounds sites in the United States, can be found in Southwestern Indiana near Evansville.[