James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941), an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark novel which perfected his stream of consciousness technique. His complete oeuvre includes three books of poetry, a play, occasional journalism, and his published letters. This portrait of Joyce is a digitally modified derivative work from the photo by C. Ruf, Zurich, ca. 1918, and by virtue of age of publication it is in public domain in the United States.