Mt Jefferson Oregon Flora Fungi Moss Botany Lichen Card
This video still was taken from our expedition video, The Mount Jefferson Expedition shot on location in Oregon. I'm Michael C. Clark Naturalist, Explorer, and Cinematographer. My compañero Loganapithicus and I travel the world in search of unique ecosystems to explore and document cinéma-vérité style. Our expeditions usually take place in an area of five square miles or less within a duration of 7-21 days and we focus on the entire ecosystem plants, animals, geology, weather, and more. We do not specifically seek out, bait, or wait for species, we film what we encounter as we explore the ecosystem on foot. The purpose of our expeditions is to help in homo sapien's ceaseless quest for knowledge by documenting the ecosystems as they are forever changing with plant Earth as they have for billions of years. Our ecosystem videos can be viewed FREE by anyone and used for nonprofit educational instruction and testing purposes as well as scientific study of the ecosystems. Therefore we have left out narrations and used music in the background when no natural sound is available, ultimately leaving the videos for self interpretation, individual discovery, and for professors to explain or show as examples in a classroom setting. We are unable to film every species in the selected ecosystems, as it is impossible to get everything in such a short time frame, one could spend an entire lifetime studying an ecosystem of planet Earth and still never see it all. No plant or animal species were harmed during our expeditions, all species are filmed in their natural habitat and are not coerced or paid for any performances. This is Mother Nature's movie if you have script questions please direct them towards her. Situated in the far northeastern corner of Linn County on the Jefferson County line, about 105 miles (169 km) east of Corvallis, Mount Jefferson is in a rugged wilderness and is thus one of the hardest volcanoes to reach in the Cascades; though USFS Road 1044 does come within 4 miles (6.4 km) of the summit. The lower reaches of the mountain's north side also extend into southeastern Marion County, although its summit does not. Jefferson's craggy, deeply glacially scarred appearance is especially beautiful and photogenic, and the peak has frequently served as a backdrop for automobile and alcohol advertisements in the United States. The average elevation of the terrain around Jefferson is 5,500 to 6,500 feet (1,700 to 2,000 m), meaning that Jefferson's cone still towers nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) above it. Previous studies estimated that the cone is made of roughly equal amounts of tephra and lava, but Sutton's 1974 study found half as much tephra as expected. The remainder of the material thought to be tephra was in fact broken lava rock. Sometime before the last reversal of the Earth's magnetic field 700,000 years ago, the 23.4-cubic-mile (97.5 km3) Minto Lavas created a large volcanic plateau formed from coalescing shield volcanoes. They were heavily eroded by glaciers before Jefferson started to grow. Mount Jefferson started life as a highly explosive vent, which in turn built a tephra-rich cone (this same cone now forms the volcano's core). Much of this structure was subsequently buried under about 5 cubic miles (21 km3) of basaltic andesite lava flows that are called the Main Cone Lavas. These lavas form a mass of rock 5 to 40 feet (1.5 to 12 m) thick near the top of the old cone and become progressively thicker further down the mountain. The lack of lahar (volcanic mudflow) or avalanche deposits associated with the original cone and the Main Cone Lavas indicates that these volcanic eruptions probably occurred in a warm interglacial period. Glaciers did form directly on the Main Cone Lavas and cause erosion later. A fungus ( /ˈfʌŋɡəs/; plural: fungi or funguses) is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, which is often regarded as a branch of botany, even though genetic studies have shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants. Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange. They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g. rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, and morphologies ranging from single-celled aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at 1.5 million to 5 million species, with about 5% of these having been formally classified. Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla. Lichens ( /ˈlaɪkən/, sometimes /ˈlɪtʃən/) are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (the mycobiont) and a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont or phycobiont), usually either a green alga (commonly Trebouxia) or cyanobacterium (commonly Nostoc). The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of the isolated fungus and alga in culture. Lichens occur in some of the most extreme environments on Earth—arctic tundra, hot deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. However, they are also abundant as epiphytes on leaves and branches in rain forests and temperate woodland, on bare rock, including walls and gravestones, and on exposed soil surfaces (e.g., Collema) in otherwise mesic habitats. Lichens are widespread and may be long-lived; however, many are also vulnerable to environmental disturbance, and may be useful to scientists in assessing the effects of air pollution, ozone depletion, and metal contamination. Lichens have also been used in making dyes and perfumes, as well as in traditional medicines. Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm (0.4–4 in) tall, though some species are much larger. They commonly grow close together in clumps or mats in damp or shady locations. They do not have flowers or seeds, and their simple leaves cover the thin wiry stems. At certain times mosses produce spore capsules which may appear as beak-like capsules borne aloft on thin stalks. There are approximately 12,000 species of moss classified in the Bryophyta. The division Bryophyta formerly included not only mosses, but also liverworts and hornworts. These other two groups of bryophytes now are often placed in their own divisions. A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) or pores on the underside of the cap. "Mushroom" describes a variety of gilled fungi, with or without stems, and the term is used even more generally, to describe both the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota and the woody or leathery fruiting bodies of some Basidiomycota, depending upon the context of the word. Forms deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such as "puffball", "stinkhorn", and "morel", and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their place Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can also designate the entire fungus when in culture; the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms; or the species itself.