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The City of Phoenix, Arizona is the capital and the most populous city of the State of Arizona and the county seat of Maricopa County. It was incorporated as a city on February 25, 1881 and is called Hoozdo, or "the place is hot", in the Navajo language and Fiinigis in the Western Apache language.
With a population of 1,321,045, Phoenix is the sixth-largest city in the United States and largest US State Capital. Census reported the Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as the 14th-largest in the United States, with a 2005 estimated population of 3,865,077. Phoenix is the largest state capital in the United States, with a greater population than any other state capital or Washington, D.C., the national capital. The 2006 estimates for the city places the city at 1,467,223 which would mean it replaces Philadelphia as the 5th most populous city in the nation. The Metropolitan area is estimated to be just under 4 million.
Phoenix natives and residents are referred to as Phoenicians.------------------As early as AD 700, the Hohokam civilization occupied the land that would become Phoenix. This inventive society created as many as 135 miles (217 km) of irrigation canals. This allowed the otherwise dry and desolate terrain to become arable. Little is known about the Hohokam, but it is believed that between AD 1300 and AD 1450 periods of drought and severe floods lead to their disappearance.--------------By 1881, Phoenix had outgrown its original townsite-commissioner form of government. The 11th Territorial Legislature passed "The Phoenix Charter Bill", incorporating Phoenix and providing for a mayor-council government. The bill was signed by Governor John C. Fremont on February 25, 1881. Phoenix was incorporated with a population of approximately 2,500, and on May 3, 1881, Phoenix held its first city election. Judge John T. Alsap defeated James D. Monihon, 127 to 107, to become the city's first Mayor. In early 1888, the city offices were moved into the new City Hall, built where the downtown bus terminal now stands. This building also provided temporary offices for the territorial government when it moved to Phoenix from Prescott in 1889.
The coming of the railroad in the 1880s was the first of several important events that revolutionized the economy of Phoenix. Merchandise now flowed into the city by rail instead of wagon. Phoenix became a trade center with its products reaching eastern and western markets. In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888.-------------------n 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the National Reclamation Act allowing for dams to be built on western streams for reclamation purposes. Residents were quick to enhance this by organizing the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association on February 7, 1903, to manage the water and power supply. The agency still exists today as part of the Salt River Project.On February 14, 1912, under President William Howard Taft, Phoenix became the capital of the newly formed state of Arizona.------------
In 1913, Phoenix adopted a new form of government from mayor-council to council-manager, making it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government.
The 1940s marked another turning point, as war changed Phoenix from a farming center to a distribution center. Phoenix rapidly turned into an embryonic industrial city with mass production of military supplies. Luke Field, Williams Field and Falcon Field, coupled with the giant ground-training center at Hyder, west of Phoenix, brought thousands of men into Phoenix.
By 1950, over 100,000 people lived within the city and thousands more in surrounding communities. There were 148 miles (238 km) of paved streets and 163 miles (262 km) of unpaved streets.--------------Phoenix is home to several professional sports franchises, including representatives of all four major professional sports leagues in the U.S.
The Arizona Diamondbacks play at Chase Field in the National League - West Division of Major League Baseball. They began as an expansion team in 1998. In 2001, the Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees 4 games to 3 in the World Series, becoming not only the city's first professional sports franchise to win a national championship, but also the youngest expansion franchise in U.S. professional sports to ever do so.
In addition, nine Major League Baseball teams conduct spring training in the area. These teams, plus three that train in Tucson, are collectively known as the Cactus League.
The Arizona Cardinals moved to Phoenix from St. Louis, Missouri in 1988 and currently play in the NFL's National Football Conference - West Division. They used to play at Sun Devil Stadium on the campus of Arizona State University in east suburban Tempe, and are now playing at University of Phoenix Stadium in the northwest suburb of Glendale. University of Phoenix Stadium was actually featured on the TV show Modern Marvels for the roll-out natural grass field. Glendale is scheduled to host the Super Bowl in 2008.---------------The Arizona Rattlers are an arena football team that play in the Arena Football League (they play their games at US Airways Center in downtown Phoenix).
Phoenix's first major professional franchise was the Phoenix Suns, the city's National Basketball Association team, which started play in 1968. It holds a special place in Phoenix culture as it was the city's only top-level sports franchise for nearly twenty years. The Phoenix Mercury are a professional women's basketball team in the WNBA. Both teams play at US Airways Center.-----------Jobing.com Arena (formerly Glendale Arena), adjacent to University of Phoenix Stadium, is the home of the Phoenix Coyotes (formerly the Winnipeg Jets), a member of the National Hockey League. They have played in the Phoenix area since moving from Winnipeg in 1996.
The Phoenix Roadrunners are a minor league hockey team in the East Coast Hockey League, owned by the Suns and Mercury ownership group and also playing in US Airways Center. This makes Phoenix one of the few cities where minor and major league teams in the same sport coexist.----------------
The Arizona Sting are a professional lacrosse team, which is also a tenant of Jobing.com Arena, and plays in the National Lacrosse League.
The Phoenix International Raceway is a major venue for 2 NASCAR auto racing events per season. Boat racing, drag racing, and road course racing are also held at the Firebird International Raceway. Sprint car racing is held at Manzanita Speedway.
The Arizona State University Sun Devils compete in football, basketball, baseball, as well as a number of other sports in the NCAA. The Sun Devils football team plays their games at Sun Devil Stadium, which had hosted the annual Fiesta Bowl, until the 2007 game moved to the new University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. Their nearest rival is the University of Arizona Wildcats, in Tucson. The two teams compete in the "Duel in the Desert" for control of the Territorial Cup. The award is given to the winner of a football at the end of the season. It is the oldest award given for a rivalry game in the NCAA.-------------------Other major sporting events in the area include the Insight Bowl at Chase Field (will move to Sun Devil Stadium after the Fiesta Bowl moves to the new stadium in Glendale), and several major professional golf events, including the FBR Open of the PGA TOUR, the Safeway International of the LPGA, and The Tradition of the PGA Champions Tour. It was planned to host the 2006 NHL All-Star Game, but it was canceled due to the 2006 Winter Olympics (the recently adopted NHL collective bargaining agreement prohibits the All-Star Game to be held during Olympic years). As compensation, Phoenix has been granted the 2009 All-Star Game.
Phoenix's Ahwatukee American Little League reached the 2006 Little League World Series as the representative from the U.S. West region.