Bruno Liljefors - Hooded Crows 1891 Oil on Canvas T-Shirt
Hooded Crows 1891. Oil on Canvas. 52 × 70 cm (20.47 × 27.56 in). He also drew some sequential picture stories, making him one of the early Swedish comic creators. Liljefors is held in high esteem by painters of wildlife and is acknowledged as an influence, for example, by American wildlife artist Bob Kuhn. All his life Liljefors was a hunter, and he often painted predator-prey action, the hunts engaged between fox and hare, sea eagle and eider, and goshawk and black grouse serving as prime examples. However, he never exaggerated the ferocity of the predator or the pathos of the prey, and his pictures are devoid of sentimentality. The influence of the Impressionists can be seen in his attention to the effects of environment and light, and later that of Art Nouveau in his Mallards, Evening of 1901, in which the pattern of the low sunlight on the water looks like leopardskin, hence the Swedish nickname Panterfällen. Bruno was fascinated by the patterns to be found in nature, and he often made art out of the camouflage patterns of animals and birds. He particularly loved painting capercaillies against woodland, and his most successful painting of this subject is the largescale Capercaillie Lek, 1888, in which he captures the atmosphere of the forest at dawn. He was also influenced by Japanese art, for example in his Goldfinches of the late 1880s. During the last years of the nineteenth century, a brooding element entered his work, perhaps the result of turmoil in his private life, as he left his wife, Anna, and took up with her younger sister, Signe, and was often short of money. This darker quality in his paintings gradually began to attract interest and he had paintings exhibited at the Paris Salon. He amassed a collection of animals to act as his living models. Ernst Malmberg recalled: The animals seemed to have an instinctive trust and actual attraction to him...There in his animal enclosure, we saw his inevitable power over its many residents—foxes, badgers, hares, squirrels, weasels, an eagle, eagle owl, hawk, capercaillie and black game. The greatness of Liljefors lay in his ability to show animals in their environment. Sometimes he achieved this through hunting and observation of the living animal, and sometimes he used dead animals: for example his Hawk and Black Game, painted in the winter of 1883-4, was based on dead specimens, but he also used his memory of the flocks of black grouse in the meadows around a cottage he once lived in at Ehrentuna, near Uppsala. He wrote: The hawk model—a young one—I killed myself. Everything was painted out of doors as was usually done in those days. It was a great deal of work trying to position the dead hawk and the grouse among the bushes that I bent in such a way as to make it seem lively, although the whole thing was in actuality a still life. Such practices have sometimes led to criticism of Liljefors' work; for example, Lars Jonsson has noted a "heraldisation" of the drama in Golden Eagle Chasing a Hare, 1904, which causes a departure from pure naturalism, and he deduces from the position of the eagle's wing feathers that it would have been gliding rather than turning in reaction to the hare as painted. However, Liljefors was a pioneer at a time when wildlife art was still emerging from its association with scientific depiction and taxidermy. And he set a standard of identification with the landscape which substantially influenced the subsequent development of wildlife art in the twentieth century. The Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the Wood Grouse, Heather Cock (Scottish Gaelic: An Coileach-Fraoich) or Capercaillie is the largest member of the grouse family, reaching over 100 cm in length and 6.7 kg in weight. Found across northern Europe and Asia, it is renowned for its mating display.Wildlife art is one of humanity's earliest art forms, dating back to prehistoric cave paintings such as those found at the grotto of Lascaux in France. Wildlife art is the most widely recognized of human art forms as its depiction of the natural world, and the wildlife inhabiting it is a universal theme covering all cultures on all continents.Modern wildlife artists most often seek to enrich and inspire public appreciation of humanity's relationship with nature by focusing their art on the depiction of mammals, birds, sealife and insects. Most American artists try to depict their subjects in a photo realistic view but other artists have used many different mediums in the past. Artists also sculpt and draw their wild subjects. Sometimes animal mounts are put into the category of wild art, but it there are clear distinct differences. Taxidermy is the work of handling dead animals (usually killed by hunters) and mounting or "stuffing" the animals bodies. There are hundreds of internationally acclaimed painters and sculptors who have looked to the relationship between people and wildlife as a means of exploring humanity’s place in the world. Important forerunners of the modern style of wildlife sculpture include Rembrandt Bugatti and François Pompon. Modern wildlife art painters include John Clymer, Kim Donaldson, Dave Merrick, Lanford Monroe and Renso Tamse. In the last twenty years or so a number of wildlife artists such as Terry Jackson have worked exclusively in pencil, following the successful art of Gary Hodges. Many wildlife artists or art groups hold benefits to support wildlife conservation. Sometimes artists choose to depict scenes that stir emotions, such as Robert Bateman's "Driftnet – Pacific White-sided Dolphin and Laysan Albatross", in which a small dolphin and bird drown due to fishing nets. Many artists will also participate in contests held by wildlife conservation organizations. On July 10th, 2008, at Scheveningen beach in (The Netherlands), the local museum (Muzee Scheveningen) sponsored the installation of an 18-metre-long life-size sculpture of a sperm whale on the dunes, in imitation of a stranded whale. Belgian artist Dirk Claesen, also known as Zephyr, created the exhibit to provoke people to a more responsible attitude towards whales. This list of wildlife artists is a list for any wildlife artist, wildlife painter, wildlife photographer, other wildlife artist, society of wildlife artists, museum, or exhibition of wildlife art, worldwide. PAINTING Painting is a mode of expression and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature. Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). In art, the term describes both the act and the result, which is called a painting. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay or concrete. Paintings may be decorated with gold leaf, and some modern paintings incorporate other materials including sand, clay, and scraps of paper. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes of eastern religious origin. Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting, Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Appropriation, Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermedia painting, Assemblage painting, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, and paint-on-glass animation. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and, eventually, vice-versa. The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40 000 years old. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, India etc. In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting are the best known media, with rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions. Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.