Octavian/Augustus' 10th Fretensis Legion (Dolphin) T-Shirt
This Legion was founded in 41-40 BC by Caesar's heir, Octavian, who used it immediately to defeat the rebel pirate Sextus Pompeius, who'd put Rome's grain supply into peril. It got its number as a reminder of Caesar's beloved 10th. Octavian often numbered his Legions with numbers previously used, or later used by his rival Antony. It was while guarding the Straits of Messina, and after the naval Battle of Naulochus that the Legion received its permanent surname, 'Fretensis', which means 'of the sea straits'. After the decisive Battle of Actium, Octavian became Emperor Augustus, and sent the Legion to Cremona in Northern Italy. It was later stationed in the Balkans, in Syria in 6 AD, and sub-units of the Legion were at Cyrrhus, guarding the route from the Euphrates to Alexandria. While in Syria, the Legion fought under the famous Governor Publius Quirinius. During Nero's reign, the Legion fought against the vassal kingdom Armenia, capturing the capitals Artaxata and Tigranocerta. It afterwards fought in the war against the Jews, commanded by the father of the future-Emperor Trajan. In 70, it took part in the siege of Jerusalem, and afterwards remained based there for over 150 years. In 115-17, several of the Legion's officers were decorated serving under Trajan against the Parthians. Under Emperor Hadrian, it fought against the messianic leader Simon ben Kosiba, and had to evacuate its fortress at Jerusalem. The Legion redeemed itself in 136 at the siege of Batar, and the soldiers made a dedication to the water God Neptune. Units of the Legion fought against the Marcomanni under Marcus Aurelius, and it's likely that they built the altar found in Northern Romania. The Legion was back at its Jerusalem fortress under Emperor Caracalla in 211, but it was later sent to Aela, where it guarded the Scorpion Pass to Israel. Nothing is known of the Legion after the mid-3rd century. Its emblem was a dolphin.